Al Andalus



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Al Andalus is a south-western European region established as an autonomous community of the Kingdom of Spain. To the north, the country is bordered by France, and to the west by Portugal. To the east and south it is next to the Mediterranean Sea or as what it was called in the past “the roman sea”.South coast of Spain has tightened the Mediterranean Seaso that the Gibraltarhas been created. Capital city ofOne of the seventeen Autonomous communities of Spainis Seville, among its important cities, we can refer to Granada, Cordoba, Toledo, Valencia, Barcelona, Madrid.

 There are a great number of Islamic architecture as tourist attractions in Al Andalus, the most famous of them are Alhambra Palace in Granada, Mezquita in Cordoba, Torre Del Oro towers and Alcazar in Seville and Medina Azahara in Cordoba. First contact between Muslims and Al Andalus was in the year 710. Some times later,Abd al-Rahman Dakhil established an Islamic government there. During his government, Abd al-Rahman did a lot of great administrative and scientific changes in Al Andalus. Some of his changes are as following:

 First of all, he built fence around the city Cordoba, and dug a lot of underground canals (Ganat) there. He also built a lot of bathrooms, inns, and very beautiful buildingsamong them was the great palace which was exactly similar to Hisham Abdul Malik`s palace in Damascus and was surrounded by beautiful green gardens. In terms of science, he made a lot of schools and hospitals and invited great scientist and scholars from Europe, Egypt, Damascus, Iraq and other countries to teach and work there.

 Generally speaking, it can be concluded thatAbd al-Rahman and his son Hisham were the founders of the first part of Andalusian civilization, since they built and improved cities and established the administrative construction. Beside them, scientists and scholars developed the intellectual basis of the civilization, so that rational aspect of the civilization or what is called generally “culture”was born and from that time scientists could easily work and study in that special culture. Researches and achievements of Averroes (Ibn Rushd), Ibn Tufail, Avempace (Ibn Bajja) in philosophy, and Ibn Khaldun and Ibn al-Khatibin history and sociology are all products of this golden era.